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Test your knowledge of local history with these questins devised by Lesley Gretton covering Derbyshire and Leicestershire. Answers belwo the questions so no cheating!



Quiz 1 (all the following are linked to Derbyshire and/or Leicestershire) What links the following: 1) Swarkestone Bridge, Derbyshire and the Battle of Culloden? 2) A deer park in Leicestershire and a short lived Queen? 3) Cromford Canal, Derbyshire and the Crimean War? 4) The daughter of Alfred the Great and Derby? 5) Charnwood Forest and Jurassic Park? 6) A Leicester born Victorian ‘freak show’ and a Derbyshire born actor? 7) A Cardinal who died in Leicestershire and a Derbyshire born author? 8) Chatsworth House and the Crystal Palace? 9) Leicester Cathedral and a Leicestershire battle site? 10) A lane in the centre of Derby and an ill fated cousin of a Queen? Answers: 1) Bonnie Prince Charlie Swarkestone Bridge is a Grade 1 listed bridge and Scheduled Ancient Monument built in the thirteenth century on the main Derby to Coventry road. In 1745 it was the furthest place south that Bonnie Prince Charlie reached on his advance to London to claim the British Throne. He retreated to Scotland and was finally defeated at the Battle of Culloden. 2) Lady Jane Grey and Bradgate Park Lady Jane Grey was proclaimed Queen of England on 10 July 1553 on the death of Edward VI but only lasted 9 days before being deposed by the supporters of Mary Tudor. She is traditionally thought to have been born at Bradgate Park - the ruined house still stands at the centre of Bradgate Park which is home to herds of red and fallow deer. 3) Florence Nightingale Florence Nightingale became famous as a nurse during the Crimean War. On the Cromford Canal there is a ruined lengthsman and lock keepers cottage built in 1802 called Aquaduct Cottage. It was once part of the Nightingale Estate and Florence is thought to have visited the cottage several times whilst she lived at Lea Hurst. The cottage is presently being restored by the Derbyshire Wildlife Trust. 4) Aethelflaed, Lady of the Mercians Aethelflaed was the eldest daughter of Alfred the Great and ruled Mercia from 911 till her death in 918. At the time Derby was one of the Five Boroughs of Danelaw (fortified towns). It was the first to fall to the English after a bitter battle in 917. Leicester surrendered without a fight in 918. 5) David and Richard Attenborough The brothers grew up in College House, part of the campus of University College, Leicester where their father was the principal. David collected his first fossils in Charnwood Forest, Richard starred in the film Jurassic Park where DNA from fossilised mosquitos was use to recreate dinosaurs. 6) Joseph Merrick, the Elephant Man Joseph Merrick was born on 5 August 1862 in Leicester and spent 5 years in the Leicester Union Workhouse from the age of 17 before being contacted by showman Sam Torr who exhibited him as a freak show because of his disability. John Hurt portrayed him the the film Elephant Man, he was born in Chesterfield. 7) Thomas Cromwell Thomas Cromwell was the assistant to Cardinal Wolsey, who died in Leicester on the way back to London, before working for Henry VIII. The author Hilary Mantel was born in Glossop, Derbyshire and has written three novels about the life Thomas Cromwell - Wolf Hall, Bring up the Bodies, both Booker Prize winners and the final book in the trilogy, recently released, The Mirror and the Light. 8) Joseph Paxton Most famous for designing the Crystal Palace for the Great Exhibition of 1851 Joseph Paxton also worked as Head Gardener at Chatworth House and designed the Great Consevatory there. The design of the Crystal Palace was completed in Derby and he is buried at Edensor Church in Derbyshire. If this was not enough he also cultivated the Cavendish banana which is the most consumed banana in the western world. 9) Richard III Richard III lost his crown to Henry VII at the Battle of Bosworth, near to Market Bosworth in Leicestershire. After discovering his bones in a car park in Leicester he is now buried in Leicester Cathedral. 10) Mary Queen of Scots Babington Lane in Derby is named after Babington House which once stood in the centre of Derby. It was home to the Babington family whose coat of arms was two baboons on either side of a large barrel or tun ( a visual pun on the surname Baboon - tun). On 13 January 1585 Mary Queen of Scots stayed at Babington House. Perhaps surprisingly this has nothing to do with the Babington family who were from Dethick in Derbyshire and Anthony Babington who gave his name to the Babington Plot to assassinate Elizabeth I and put Mary Queen of Scots on the throne. Quiz 2 All questions have links to either Leicestershire or Derbyshire or sometimes both. What links: 1)A famous Derbeian with the Sun, the Moon and the Theory of Evolution? 2) A Roman Catholic Church in Derby and an Abbey near Coalville, Leicestershire? 3) A church graveyard in Hathersage Derbyshire and a Parsonage in Haworth, Yorkshire? 4) A Winter Garden at Coleorton Hall, Leicestershire and daffodils in the Lake District? 5) A famous Hollywood dancer and Chatsworth House, Derbyshire? 6) The Midland Railway War Memorial in Derby, the Arch of Remembrance in Leicester with New Delhi? 7) Two National Trust Properties, one in Derbyshire and one in Lincolnshire? 8) A village in south Derbyshire, with a more well known Australian counterpart, and an excursion from Leicester Campbell Street Railway Station in 1841? 9) Derby Racecourse in 1886 and Gary Lineker in 1991? 10) An American showman, 460 horses with Leicester and Derby in 1899? Answers: 1) JOSEPH WRIGHT One of the famous paintings of Joseph Wright is A Philosopher Lecturing on the Orrery 1776 (which can be seen in Derby Museum). An Orrery is a mechanical model of the solar system. Joseph Wright was associated with the Lunar Society as was Erasmus Darwin, who was painted by Joseph Wright. Erasmus Darwin, who had a house in Full Street Derby, was the grandfather of Charles Darwin who wrote the Theory of Evolution. In fact in a paper Zoonomia Erasmus actually wrote about survival of the fittest. 2) AUGUSTUS PUGIN Pugin who is most famous for the interiors in the Houses of Parliament and the Mediaeval Court at the Great Exhibition in 1851 also designed two buildings locally. St Mary’s Roman Catholic Church in Derby was designed by Pugin in 1839. It was the first church of importance designed by Pugin and is a Grade 1 listed building. In 1844 Pugin designed a new monastery church at Mount St Bernard’s Abbey near Coalville. Unfortunately due to lack of funds only the nave of the church was built. 3) CHARLOTTE BRONTE Charlotte Bronte who published Jane Eyre in 1847 lived in the Parsonage in Haworth which is now a museum. Charlotte visited Hathersage with her friend Ellen Nussey. Ellen’s brother was vicar of St Michael’s Church in Hathersage from 1845-47. The leading family in Hathersage was the Eyre family and there is a grave for a Jane Eyre in the graveyard. The Eyre family lived at North Lees Hall which was the inspiration for Thornfield Hall, the home of Mr Rochester. North Lees Hall is presently a private residence. 4) WILLIAM WORDSWORTH In 1806 Wordsworth was invited by Sir George Beaumont to stay at Hall Farm on his estate at Coleorton Hall as Dove Cottage, his home in the Lake District, was proving too crowded. While he was there Wordsworth helped with the planning of a Winter Garden at the hall. There is no note as to whether daffodils formed part of the design but his most famous poem was Daffodils. 5) FRED ASTAIRE Adele Astaire , sister of Fred, married Lord Charles Cavendish, second son of the ninth Duke of Devonshire in 1932 at his family seat Chatsworth House. They lived in Lissmore Castle, County Waterford, Ireland until his death, aged 38, of acute alcoholism. 6) SIR EDWIN LUTYEN Lutyen’s played an instrumental role in designing and building New Delhi, including the Viceroy’s House and India Gate, between 1912 and 1930. It was known as Lutyen’s Delhi and he invented a new order of classical architecture known as the Delhi Order. He is also famous for the Cenotaph in Whitehall in 1919 but he is also responsible for two World War 1 memorials locally. The Midland Railway War Memorial was built in 1925 and is situated near Derby Station on Midland Road, it is Grade 2 listed. In 1925 he designed the Arch of Remembrance which can be found in Victoria Park Leicester and is Grade 1 listed. 7) LORD CURZON Lord Curzon, 1859 - 1925 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston was born at Kedleston Hall in Derby which is now a National Trust property. He was Viceroy of India from 1899 to 1905 and there was a Curzon Road in New Delhi which connected the Indian Gate (designed by Lutyens) and Connaught Place (it has since been renamed Kasturba Gandhi Marg). In 1911 he rescued Tattershall Castle from American buyers who were in the process of exporting its magnificent fireplaces to America. Tattershall Castle is an impressive 15th century red brick tower which is now owned by the National Trust. 8) THOMAS COOK Thomas Cook was born at 9 Quick Close, Melbourne in Derbyshire in 1808 and died in Knighton Leicester in 1892. The father of modern mass tourism his first excursion on 5 July 1841 was to take a group of 500 temperance campaigners at a shilling each from Leicester Campbell Street Station to a teetotal rally in Loughborough. 9) THE FA CUP Gary Lineker, most famously a Leicester City player, won the FA Cup with Tottenham Hotspur in 1991 - they beat Nottingham Forest 2:1. In 1886 Blackburn Rovers and West Bromwich Albion drew 0:0 and the replay was played at the Racecourse Ground in Derby - this was the first time the final took place outside London from it’s inception in 1872. The Racecourse Ground was a Horse Racing venue from 1848 till 1939, home of Derby County Football Club from 1884 till 1895 and a County Cricket Ground from 1871. 10) BARNUM AND BAILEY’S GREATEST SHOW ON EARTH In 1898, after the death P T Barnum, Bailey took the show on tours of the UK and Europe. In 1899 the show visited both Leicester and Derby as part of the tour. The logistics were really impressive. To start with everything and everyone were moved by train which meant special vehicles had to be made which included 3 elephant cars. The tour started on 10 April in Birmingham and ended on 11 November in Hanley, Stoke having covered 4073 miles, visited 112 towns and performed 349 times. On 3-4 May they were in Leicester, 5-6 May Nottingham, 8-11 May Sheffield, 12 May Derby and 13 May Burton. They had 860 staff, 460 horses and a tent that was 525 feet long, 240 feet wide and 65 feet high which all had to be taken down after the show closed at 10:00pm and moved to be ready at the next venue for 9:00am! Quiz 3 1) Derby Arboretum and the Derwent Valley Mills World Heritage Site. 2) Loughborough and Derby in 1916 and a German Count. 3) A famous lexicographer and an Anglo-Saxon princess 4) Bud Flanagan and the Friar Gate Railway Bridge 5) The Collegiate School in Leicester and the Malay Archipelago. 6) Leicester City Football Club and Quorn, Leicestershire. 7) A savoury pie from Leicestershire, two Derbyshire cheeses but not an almond pudding. 8) Ashby Castle and Sir Walter Scott 9) Bridgewater, the Trent and Mersey, Shardlow and Ashby. 10) An increasingly popular British institution and Belvoir Castle Answers 1) The Strutt family. Derby Arboretum, opened in 1840, was the first public park in Britain. It was created by Joseph Strutt who was the youngest son of Jedediah Strutt and was free to the public on Sunday and Wednesday initially. Jedediah Strutt built two mills in Belper in 1778 and Milford in 1782. These are part of the Derwent Valley Mills World Heritage Site. This covers Cromford, Belper, Milford and Darley Abbey and includes 839 listed buildings, nine scheduled monuments, Cromford Canal and the Cromford and High Peak Railway. 2) Zeppelins In the First World War there were bombing raids on Britain by Zeppelins which killed over 500 people. These rigid airships were named after Count Ferdinand Von Zeppelin who developed them and patented the design in 1895. The first Zeppelin raid was on 19 January 1915 on Great Yarmouth and they stopped in June 1917. On the night of 31 January 1916 the Zeppelins bombed Loughborough killing ten people and Rolls Royce and Midland Railway sites in Derby killing 61 people. In both cases the pilot was attracted by the lights of the towns. 3) St Werburgh Samuel Johnson (1709-1784) published A Dictionary of the English Language in 1755 which was the pre eminent English Dictionary for 150 years. He was married in St Werburgh’s Church in Derby on 9 July 1735. The Church is a Grade 2* listed building in Friargate. St. Werburgh was the daughter of King Wulfhere of Mercia who became the fourth Abbess of Eley. 4) The song ‘Underneath the Arches’ Bud Flanagan was part of the Musical Hall Act Flanagan and Allen. ‘Underneath the Arches’ was one of their most famous songs and was written by Bud Flanagan in 1927. It was written in Derby and refers to the arches of the Friar Gate Railway Bridge. Whilst the station and railway line have long since gone the bridge still stands. 5) Alfred Russell Wallace (1823-1913) Between 1843 and 1845 Wallace taught drawing, mapmaking and surveying at the Collegiate School in Leicester. He spent time in Leicester Library where he met Henry Bates a noted entomologist who started his interest in nettles. Wallace developed a theory of natural selection and in 1858 he sent an article outlining his theory to Charles Darwin. Wallace’s article was published alongside Darwin’s Theory of Evolution in the same year. In 1869 he published his book ‘The Malay Archipelago’ which became one of the most popular books of scientific exploration of the time. He is famous for the Wallace Line which delineates Australian and South East Asian fauna and the Wallace Effect that states natural selection increases with reproductive isolation. 6) Foxes Quorn is the birthplace of fox hunting. The Quorn Hunt was established in 1696 and in the eighteenth century Hugo Maynell, the father of fox hunting, established a pack of hounds. The nickname of Leicester City Football Club is the Foxes. 7) European Union Protected Food Name This EU initiative protects geographical location and description of chosen local foods. Those in Derbyshire and Leicestershire are: Melton Mowbray Pork Pie Dovedale Cheese Buxton Blue Cheese In addition Stilton Cheese is listed for the geographical area of Derbyshire, Leicestershire and Nottinghamshire but, perhaps surprisingly, not Bakewell Puddings. 8) Ivanhoe Ashby Castle is a ruined Castle in Ashby-de-la-Zouch Leicestershire looked after by English Heritage. It was built by William, Lord Hastings in 1473 but slighted in 1648 by Parliamentary Forces after a long siege. Henry Hastings was the Royalist Commander in the Midlands and was based in the Castle. The Castle became famous when it was featured in the book ‘Ivanhoe’ by Sir Walter Scott in 1819. Following this it was opened to the public by the then owner Francis Rawdon. 9) James Brindley (1716-1772) Brindley was born in Tunstead Derbyshire and is famous for Canal building. In 1761 the Bridgewater Canal was opened and is often regarded as the first British Canal of the modern era. This Canal was then extended to Runcorn and Brindley then started work on the Trent and Mersey Canal. This links into the River Trent at Wilden Ferry near Shardlow. Brindley also worked on the Coventry Canal. In 1804 the Ashby Canal was opened which connected the mining district around Moira to the Coventry Canal. It’s engineer was Robert Whitworth who learnt his trade from James Brindley. 10) Afternoon Tea was invented at Belvoir Castle. Belvoir Castle in the Grade 1 listed home of the Manners family and the seat of the Dukes of Rutland. The present property, overlooking the Vale of Belvoir, is in Gothic Revival style and is open to the public. In the 1840’s Anne Duchess of Bedford was visiting and found the gap between luncheon and dinner too great. She found a light meal of tea, sandwiches and cakes fitted the bill. She was soon inviting friends for Afternoon Tea and it quickly became very popular among the middle classes.